Land Divisions

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Philosophical concepts

Borders and borderlessness

Before decolonization, borders were somehow considered real and were often used as barriers to free movement and settlement. Now, globally, there are no borders that function that way. Rather, borders are generally seen as quasi-mystical, and are used for their political utility of demarcating residents who require services that benefit from standardization or are the kind of services old-style countries would provide (e.g. trains). Some countries (e.g. Ireland) see themselves as culturally entire, and the residents enjoy the bordering that allows them to self identify (e.g. "I'm Irish). Borders are also used for regional naming protocols, allowing residents to specify where they live, as in, "I'm from Aulinta, Aztlan Autonomous Zone, United States portion). Another important use of borders is for the sake of creating fun and excitement in sporting competitions, where having a "side" seems to convey a psychological benefit to fans.

Borderlessness describes the global concept whereby borders are seen as quasi-mystical, and no longer prevent free movement and settlement.

Separate wholeness

Separate wholeness is a concept that arose from decolonial borderlessness ideologies. This concept is used to describe a group of people who see themselves as complete and entire in themselves, and who are residents of a land division that reflects for them that completeness, but who also see themselves as connected to and indeed part of a larger group and region.

The standard example of separate wholeness is the country of Hawaii. Hawaiians consider themselves as primarily Hawaiian, and their country functions as a typical modern country, providing services and care for the residents. Polynesian Hawaiians also consider themselves part of Polynesia. Haoles, the descendants of European colonists, will sometimes think of themselves as connected to the United States, and the descendants of Asian immigrants will sometimes identify as, for example, "Japanese" or "Chinese." Residents of mixed ancestry can identify with multiple identities, and these residents have created a larger mytho-region that covers the entire Pacific basin and beyond. None of these multiple identities detracts from the primary identification as "Hawaiian," but the identities do inform the negotiations of land stewardship and use that Hawaiians have taken as a country: Polynesian-identified Hawaiians have been returned to primary stewardship, and haoles and others work to become better residents of the land, increasing their bioresponsibility and landsense. They recognize both the separate ways their ancestors arrived on the islands of Hawaii, but also realize the need to work as a whole to integrate themselves in the decolonial milieu. None of this description is meant to suggest that this work is or has been easy or uncontentious, nor that it is complete.

Populations

In the post-scarcity decolonial global economies afforded by the Renewable Energy Revolution, refugees and migrants-of-duress are rare. Because of global coordination of response, even natural disasters no longer cause wholesale abandonment of the affected areas. Therefore, it is very common for people to remain living in or near the region they were born. However, there is a great deal of travel and--because the standard work schedule leaves generally 1/4 of the year free--exchange visiting. Temporary change-of-venue, on the order of 3-5 years, is also common. There still is indeed what would have been called emigration and immigration, but such movements are no longer under duress.

In the absence of borders-as-barriers, travelers and migrants are not required to apply for or receive things like the pre-decolonial "visas" or "citizenship." Land division administration does, however, tend to require population counting for the sake of services and tax structures (or the equivalent). Most countries, states, zones, enclave/enclaves, etc., generally keep track of the number of residents, and even of individual residents. Some land division administrations issue residency cards, but these are generally for decorative or entertainment purposes.

Land areas that have lower carrying capacity (e.g. arid and desert regions) of necessity need to keep more-exact track of the number of residents. Since global education standards inculcate landsense and bioresponsibility, people wishing to migrate to regions with lower carrying capacity will almost invariably consult with relevant administrative structures to determine whether they can, in fact, move to the region without straining resources. People who fail to consider carrying capacity in their travel or migration are subject to eyeroll and a talking to.

Land division types

Bioregions

A bioregion is a geographically and ecologically defined area, larger than an ecosystem or ecoregion. Bioregions are defined by the World Wildlife Organization as "geographic clusters of ecoregions that may span several habitat types, but have strong biogeographic affinities, particularly at taxonomic levels higher than the species level (genus, family)."

Bioregions are sometimes the basis of named areas that are considered other forms of land divisions, such as countries. For example, Oz (formerly Australia) is both a bioregion and a country. Polynesia, however, is considered a single bioregion but contains multiple state entities (e.g. Rapa Nui) and countries (ex. Tonga). The states and countries of Polynesia also conceptualize their smaller land divisions as parts of their larger bioregion/cultural region.

Countries

Countries are land and, usually, administrative divisions. These areas can be grosstopically coterminous or nearly-coterminous with pre-decolonial bordered countries (e.g. México). Or they can be areas that were once a part of another country and now are their own country (e.g. Siberia). They can also be areas that were once multiple countries, or parts of multiple countries, and now are a single country (e.g. the Kazakh жүз/jüz, also styled Kazakhstan, includes what used to be parts of China, Uzbekistan, Russia, and Siberia). They can also no longer include parts that were included in their pre-decolonial boundaries (e.g. France, which no longer includes Euskal Herria, aka Basque).

Generally, modern countries function in ways that bear certain similarities to the functions of pre-decolonial countries: countries pledge to care for the residents; they collect taxes, although these are generally paid by towns, cities, and states, not by individual residents; they provide services that require larger-than-city-or-state resources (e.g. railroads, weather satellites) or that benefit from standardization (dirigible aerodrome inspectors) or that cities or states do not want to provide themselves (e.g. mediums of exchange).

No modern borders of countries function the way that borders functioned in pre-decolonial times: they are not used as barriers to entry or residency. They are often, however, used to define residency and thereby determine needs for services (a system that is shorthanded with the phrase "more trains").

Some countries also refer to themselves as state entities, and the terms can be confusingly interchangeable.

Cross border or borderless regions

Cross border region

Cross border regions are areas that consider themselves a kind of single entity, but whose land area overlaps the borders of one or more other land division type. Cross border regions have internal continuity without respect to the borders they overlap. Cross border regions are generally culture- or lifeways-based, but can also have their own codes and standards that may differ from the codes and standards of the crossed land divisions. In such cases, the cross border region will negotiate standards-priority with the under/overlying land divisions.

Borderless region

Borderless regions can also cross other land division demarcations, or can be contained within a single type of land division. These regions are not demarcated and are only cultural and lifeways-based, and do not have codes and standards that are different from the underlying land divisions.

Divisions

Division is a general and fuzzy word that can refer to any and all types of land demarcation.

Enclaves, exclaves, enclave/enclaves, etc.

Enclave

Enclaves are areas entirely surrounded by the land area of a larger land division, and not considered part of the larger division. The country of San Marino, surrounded entirely by the country of Italy, is the classic example of an enclaved country.

Exclave

An exclave is a piece of any given land division that is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding territory (of one or more other, unrelated, land divisions). Many exclaves are also enclaves. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states. Llívia is an enclave and exclave of Spain surrounded by France.

Enclave/enclave, etc.

An enclave/enclave is a cross border region that crosses only one country border and claims more-independent political or social division separateness than a standard cross border region. A typical enclave/enclave will have more country-like responsibilities to its residents, including providing a few country-level services. The purpose of the enclave/enclave is to create a country-like division that simultaneously exists as itself AND as the underlying countries. The Haudenosaunee/Iroquoian Cross Border Reconciliated Area, An Overlap Enclave/Enclave of the State Entities Currently Known as Canada and the United States (OEESECKCUS), is the standard example of an enclave/enclave. The residents of Haudenosaunee/Iroquoian OEESECKCUS are also, depending on what part of the enclave/enclave they live in, considered residents of the United States or Canada. The towns of OEESECKCUS pay taxes to either country, depending on their location. Towns in Haudenosaunee/Iroquoian OEESECKCUS, however, pay slightly lower taxes to these countries, and pay the remainder to the OEESECKCUS itself. In return, the OEESECKCUS provides an internal education system, K-Ph.D., whose standards and curriculum are determined at the enclave/enclave level.

Other enclave/enclaves might provide different services that are separate from the services provided by the underlying countries of the enclave/enclave.

In the world, there are several land divisions that have been set up as enclave/enclave/enclaves, and in a few cases there are even more complex overlaps. The most famous of these is Vlaanderen (Flanders), which--due to the bizarre borders of the Netherlands and Belgium--calls itself an n-enclave, or sometimes an ∞-enclave, as a way of both laughing at the number of times it crosses borders and country-enclaves of the two countries and of avoiding trying to actually count these borders.

Regions

Like division, region is another fuzzy term that can be applied to areas within countries or other land divisions, as well as areas that encompass multiple land divisions.

States, state entities, en-stated regions, and pseudo states

State

The term state is generally applied to a bordered region that is inside of and considered a subdivision of a larger land division, usually a country. The United States is a country made up of multiple states. The confusing name--the same as the colonial country known as the United States--does not reflect the manner in which the country functions in ways that are vastly different than that pre-decolonial country. However, being a country made up of individual states remains a determining characteristic of the United States. Examples of states in this sense include: Ní Btháska, Ioway, Colorado, etc. The purpose of states is varied, but generally states create residential naming protocols (I'm from Cheyenne, Wyoming). They can also act as tax contributory entities to countries.

In some cases, states reflect colonial territorial histories. For example, Rapa Nui (formerly Easter Island), is currently a state of the country Chili Suyu Ripuwlika (Chile). In the future, Rapa Nui may decide to become its own country, or to become part of another country, or to exist in some other form, but for the sake of convenience the residents have decided to continue an association with Chile and receive services that are useful to the islanders and difficult to obtain because of the island's remote location. Since land stewardship has been returned to the native people, such a situation of convenience does not have the abusive problems of pre-decolonial structures. The decision to remain part of a formerly-colonial entity is part of the tense confrontation with and integration of total history.

State entity

State entity is a slippery term that is applied in multiple senses. It can mean a state, a country, or another kind of land division that is a cohesive administrative area.

Because of the differences between modern countries and their pre-decolonial practices, and as a reflection of the contingent name of the any such country which may change as people continue processes of decolonization, you will see the construction "state entity currently known as" before many names. This is a general rather than specific use of the word "state," meaning "administrative area" rather than specifically "subdivision of a larger division." Hence, the United States, while currently a country, is often referred to as "the state entity currently known as the United States" (SECKATUS).

En-stated region

Enstated regions are areas that are subdivisions of larger administrative areas, but that do not wish to participate in any potential residual hierarchical ideologies of state-country categorizations. Alternately, en-stated regions may be areas that are newly-formed as a cohesive whole and are going through a process of negotiation with a larger administrative district (county) to become a state.

Pseudo states

Pseudo states are areas that act in many ways like states in relationship to a larger administrative district (country), but are not interested in the naming, exact bordering for residential counting purposes, or generalized rigamarole that states engage in. Some areas maintain pseudo state status as a form of protest against the history of colonialism. While no modern country functions the way colonial countries did, few modern countries are absent a violent and even genocidal colonial history. A pseudo state like Lakota in the United States has many qualities of a state in the state-country relationship, but differs from a state in: having shifting and fluid borders related to animal migration patterns and seasonal river course changes, thereby creating ephemeral cross border regions with the states around it; claiming as residents often-diffuse diasporic populations that may reside in neighboring actual-states or countries, creating what is known as a "star field pattern" population; and not participating in certain processes of standardization but rather maintaining independent-but-safety-consistent standards.

Zones

"Zone" is a somewhat-fuzzy word, but often applies to areas that have features of more than one kind of relevant land division. For example, the Aztlan Autonomous Zone shares features of both cross border and borderless regions, and has some pseudo state aspects, e.g. it has a few internal standards and codes that differ from the codes and standards of the underlying countries; people who live in the zone are not required to feel as though they are from Aztlan; people outside of Aztlan can feel as though they are from Aztlan; the borders are somewhat amorphous or changeable, are generally remain in the same place-ish. Aztlan also contains multiple enclaves itself, and provides a few special services much like an enclave/enclave.

Other applications

Xones

These are regions within Time Atlas Park, similar in many ways to ordinary zones, but "diegetically autonomous" (according to the Time Atlas Employee Manual), which evidentally means that they have their own continuity which is neither impacted by nor influential upon the canonical story of the Park itself. (It's kind of like saying, "Peppermint Bay", a xone is just an aesthetically and culturally distinct sub-area or complex of areas, marked by an internally consistent vividness. It was once a category important to the invited researchers into polychronia and uchronia, though, as the official invitation was withdrawn when the park withdrew all its alliances and grudges, any chronologists or kairologists working within the park keep their business to themselves.